Anatomy Learning Resources: which are open?
by O. Paul Gobée, MD, anatomist, dept. of Anatomy & Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands
A separate page features a collection of the Best Open Anatomy Learning Resources.
If you are a teacher of anatomy looking for material you can directly (re)use in your teaching, go there.
That page focuses on good quality Anatomy Learning Resources with a Creative Common License (which guarantees redistribution is allowed at no cost) or in the Public Domain, but also some high quality 'no-cost read access' resources are included.
The resources on that page were collected and selected during the TOOL2 project.
Archived page of investigation of online anatomical resources
The rest of the page below is kept available for archival purposes but will probably not be updated and extended with new resources any more.
It regards a prior investigation done to get an impression of the amount and quality of available online anatomical resources with an open license and 'no-cost read access', resources. During the investigation, also several less open resources were identified and are listed.
However you may notify us if you find errors in this listing. Also we always look forwards to hear of high quality anatomy learning resources with Creative Commons licenses or in the Public Domain, which might be added to the above page of best open anatomy learning resources.
Resources were investigated in a number of categories: repositories, general anatomy, dissection, embryology, histology, 3D applications, and clinical anatomy.
Resources were found as follows: from own experience as anatomist, from a request to fellow anatomists in Netherlands and Belgium to submit used sites, from suggestions by colleagues, and from a listing of several sites I had bumped into and noted over the last years. And last but not least, from Google searches.
For each resource, a short description is given and it was investigated whether it could be accessed, which license applies, and its possible costs. It is noted whether open reuse (with modification and republishing) is possible.
For each resource, it was checked whether/how specific subjects could be found. As a random test, for three anatomical structures the presence of items was checked. This was done for: superior mesenteric artery, posterior tibial (muscle) and the superior extensor retinaculum in the ankle.
A (subjective) judgement of the resource is given based on random checks. Also an over-all conclusion per category is given.
This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribute-ShareAlike International 4.0 (CC BY SA)
This file is for informational purposes only. It was attempted to be accurate, but no warranties are given as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information in this file.
|By O. Paul Gobée, Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands. License: CC BY SA. Last update: 20 June 2019.||CREDITS: I kindly thank the following persons for their contributions to this list (in alphabetic order):|
|This file is for informational purposes only. It was attempted to be accurate, but no warranties are given as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information in this file.||Johannes van der Belt, LUMC; Friso Jansen, LUMC; Fred van Immerseel, LUMC; Michel Dieben, LUMC; Loes Hazes, VUMC; Michael Hortsch, Univ. of Michigan; Sylvia Moes, VU; Robbert Notenboom, LUMC; Annelieke Schepens-Franke, UMCG; Anna Sieben UMCG; Hester van der Sloot, Haagse Hogeschool; Marja Versantvoort, Fontys Hogeschool Mens en Gezondheid.|
|Closed, No reuse allowed||No/partial open access|
|Semi open access*||Minimal: everyone can access at any time for free. Sign in may be required||Open access*|
|Open Access*||No sign in, direct access for anyone at any time for free||
NOTE: The term 'open access' was used in the below listing to mean 'no-cost read access'. It does NOT mean freely reusable!
In the realm of research, the term 'open access' is often being meant in a more permissive sense, also including adaptation and redistribution, see Berlin Declaration re. Open Access
|Partially open reuse||includes CC Non Derivative|
|Open reuse||CC license that allows reuse, Public Domain|
|Recommended (PG)||Recommended by (initials PG= Paul Gobée; ...)|
|Not investigated yet||Test look up subjects|
|Name||URL||Description/subject||Accessibility*||License, Explanation Creative Commons (CC) licenses||Costs||Review||Open reusable?||Findability specific items||Superior mesenteric artery||Posterior tibial (muscle)||Superior extensor retinaculum||Date accessed dd-mm-yyyy||Contributed by|
|SHORT LIST RECOMMENDATIONS OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES (OER) ANATOMY|
|OER||CreativeCommons Search||https://oldsearch.creativecommon.org/||The new interface at https://search.creativecommons.org does not yet deliver usable results for anatomical structures||General search of CC licensed materials in Google, YouTube, Wikimedia, Flickr, etc.|
|OER||Google Image search, choose Usage Rights||https://www.google.com||choose: Tools> Usage rights> Choose one of the options 'Labeled for reuse'||General search of CC licensed materials|
|OER||Wikimedia: plates from Grays, Sobotta, Grant||https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Anatomical_plates_and_drawings_by_source||Gray's, Sobotta's, Grant's etc. drawings that have fallen into the Public Domain|
|OER||OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology||https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology||Currently, the standard open anatomical textbook|
|OER||Blausen Medical||https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/WikiJournal_of_Medicine/Medical_gallery_of_Blausen_Medical_2014||>250 fresh, attractive drawings of (clinical) anatomy under CC BY license|
|OER||Anatomy of the Brain||http://neuroanatomy.ca||Attractive site on neuroanatomy under CC BY NC SA license|
|OER||Radiopaedia||https://radiopaedia.org/||The largest collection of CC licensed radiology images|
|OER||Gray's Anatomy 1918 on Bartleby||http://www.bartleby.com/107/||The renowned Gray's anatomy book, an edition that has fallen into the Public Domain|
|OER||3D embryo atlas||https://www.3dembryoatlas.com/||3D embryology models based on the Carnegie collection. Under CC BY NC ND|
|REP||CONCLUSION REPOSITORIES: For good quality anatomical images first check the Sobotta images that have fallen in the Public Domain. The Blausen collection is limited in amount and more targeted at medical procedures, but it has very nice images, so it can be useful if the image you need is there. For general search of anatomical materials with a CC license, the best is the Creative Commons search engine. It allows to search across several repositories and search engines. Next best is a Google search with setting of usage rights to 'labeled for reuse'. You will find many images on Wikimedia. For each tested structure this delivered a few anatomically good, but mostly old images (B/W engravings with one colour, Gray type), and some occasional other useful images (radiology, pathology, dissection). However, also a lot not useful images are found: not-human, other structures, unclear or incorrect. So one must know the structure to distinguish. The Britannica ImageQuest might also contain useful images, but one must have a entry license (within institution or private) and the license on the imagery is not completely clear: they do not have CC licenses, but it just states 'educational usage'. Fo instance: is usage online allowed? HEAL and MedEdPortal seem too limited for anatomy.|
|REP||(Medical gallery of) Blausen Medical 2014 Recommended (PG)||https://en.wikiversity||collection of over 250 anatomy and clinical antomy drawings||Open access||CC BY||Free||Attractive, good quality||Yes||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||6-2-2019||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Cell Image Library||http://www.cellimage||Collection of thousands of microscopic and electronmicroscopic images and videos and animations of cell components, cell types, organelles, cell processes of a variety of organisms, both normal and abnormal.||Open access, for some parts requires Flash or Silverlight.||Multiple licenses. Many CC, but also has Copyrighted items. License is given with each item.||Free||A host of cell types and cell components, mostly non-human. Might be useful to find specific cell component images. Probably more useful for biomedical studies than for medical study.||Yes, but only remotely useful for anatomy.||search box||9-1-2017||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||CC Search (incl. Google, YouTube, Wikimedia, Flickr)
|https://search.creativ||Meta search engine by Creative Commons (includes searches in Google images, Wikimedia commons, YouTube, Flickr)||open access||CC||free||Mostly on Wikimedia; mostly old B/W with one colour engravings type Gray: anatomically correct but old. Also some radiological/pathogical. Also lot not useful: not-human, other structures, unclear or incorrect||Yes, but mostly old B/W engravings||search box||~3-10 moder/ spec CONCL: A few anatomically good, but old (B/W one colour engravings), a few reasonable radiological normal , 5-10 interesting pathogical radiological. DETAILS: Europeana: 1 good but old (1831, b/w engraving), Flickr: 3 meagre (2 only origin, 1 scheme); Google img: 2 good, 3 reasonable, but all B/W with one/few colour engravings. Sources: Wikimedia, Flickr, embryological: 1 good but old (B/W 1 colour engraving), 2 moderate dissection photo's (1 wikimedia, 1 Flickr); Wikimedia: 85 img = more/less all previous ones + ~10 radiologic & pathological, ~40 veterinary or irrelevant; YouTube: 59 videos: quality unchecked, probably varies||~0-3 moder. DETAILS: Europeana: 0; Flickr: 0; Google img: 1 moderate but old 'muscle self' from Gray's (B/W 1 colour engraving), 2 reasonable-good, but old cross-sections (B/W 1 colour engraving), 1 good but B/W and partial dissection photo (tendon in ankle ); Wikimedia Commons: same ones as previous; YouTube: 211 usefulness not directly clear||1 + few incorrect. DETAILS: Europeana: 0; Flickr: 0; Google img: 1 simple but good, 2 incorrect (term or wrong ligament), all from Wikimedia; Wikimedia: 0; YouTube: 1 not checked quality||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Darthmouth Library||http://www.dartmout||Holds lists of repositories of medical images||open access||n.a.||free||A good listing of databeses. But requires investigation of all the mentioned resources to be able to judge if there are gems.||N.a.||9-1-2017||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||CC Search Beta||https://ccsearch.creati||Meta search engine by Creative Commons||open access||CC||free||Not yet functioning apparently. No results at all for any search. Searched with 'commercial' not checked and 'modify, adapt or build on' checked||N.a.||search box||0||0||0||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Edurep||https://www.kennisn||Dutch repository of educational items, aimed at primary education, secondary education and middle level vocational education||open access||?||free||Selected filters 'medicine', 'University', 'Univ of Applied Sciences' resulted in 33 hits, mostly nursing and general themes as 'health, death, literature research', no anatomical items.||Yes, but no relevant content||browse a list of items based on filters||0||0||0||2-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Heal (Health Education Assets Library)||https://library.med.ut||22.000 open items re. health. Mostly clinical. Dermatology, hematological, pathology, histology, neuroanatomical.||open access||CC BY NC SA or unspecified||free||Most clinical, not anatomical. Images reasonable but bit simple and not very sophisticated. Tried 2 neurovideos: bad quality, no sound, not understandable, unusable||Yes, but anatomy incomplete and limited quality||search box||1 meagre||0||1 reasonable||2-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Kahn Academy||https://www.khanaca||Open courses with videos. Has 1 course 'health and medicine' with series of videos on the systems. Has introduction level anatomy. More emphasizing on physiology. Also several clinical courses.||open access||CC BY NC SA, alternate or copyright||free||Useful for introductions. Mostly physiological. Falling short for anatomy||Yes, but only introductory anatomy useful||browse in course 'health and medicine', search box||0 (link to video on biliary duct)||0 (only general video 'Skeletal structure and function'||0||2-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||Lane Medical Library, Stanford Medicine||https://lane.stanford.||Search engine of Stanford University that searches across multiple repositories. Images are labeled with their license.||open access||Varying licenses. some CC, many copyrighted. The images are practically arranged in license groups of increasing restriction. But at investigation of specific items many are copyrighted.||free||Initially seems a great resource, but a few tests done so far (the structures in columns at right plus 'Kocher's maneuver', 'hemicolectomy', 'Pfannenstiel' didn't result in any usable images with open reuse license. Either poor quality or copyrighted||Some are, but no useful results were found in the performed tests.||search box||50 broad reuse license, mostly from Basset collection - quality poor. Moreover license can be unclear if you select a specific item||55 broad reuse license, mostly from Basset collection - quality poor.||19 broad reuse license, mostly from Basset collection - quality poor. None really useful.||9-1-2017||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||MedEdportal||https://www.mededportal.org/||Collection of reviewed medicine related items. Mainly clinical collections. "Stand-alone, complete teaching or learning modules that have been implemented and evaluated". 214 items on 'anatomy', quite varied specific items, mostly clinical anatomical||open access||CC (diverse)||free||mostly clinical, limited number of clinical anatomical resources. No hits for individual anatomical structures||Yes, but not useful as resource to find individual anatomical structures||search box||0||0||0||2-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|REP||National Cancer Institute||https://visualsonline.||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||National Eye Institute||https://nei.nih.gov/photo||The NEI Photos and Images Catalog is provided as a source of free visuals. Permission is granted to use these items for educational, news media or research purposes, provided the source for each image is credited. The NEI Photos and Images catalog may not be used to promote or endorse commercial products or services. Use by non-profit organizations in connection with fundraising or product sales is considered commercial use.||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||National Institute of Mental Health||https://images.nimh.||Image library includes: videos, audio, illustrations, medical/cellular imaging||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||National Library of Medicine||https://collections.nl||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||Open Access Biomedical Image Search Engine||https://openi.nlm.nih||Search engine for biomedical images from journal articles. One can filter on CC licenses||Open access||Multiple licenses. Many CC, but also has Copyrighted items. One can filter on license. But it is often not completely clear what the license of a specific item is.||free||A vast amount of images. Mostly clinical. As all images are from journal articles, they mostly show something specific. Probably not very useful to find normal anatomy images.||Yes, but probably hardly or no normal anatomy and licensing is somewhat unclear||Search box, filters||1708 items|
|REP||Public Health Image Library (PHIL)||https://phil.cdc.gov/D||Image library includes: illustrations, clinical photography, infographics, photography of health professionals in research and clinical environments, patient photography, medical/cellular imaging.||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|REP||Sobotta images in Public Domain
|https://commons.wiki||>800 images of the Sobotta atlas that have fallen into the public domain||Open access||Public domain||free||Sobotta, renowned, high quality drawings. Most are black and white. Of course a bit old fashioned look.||Yes||Browse images||yes||yes||unsure, other name?||6-2-2019||Paul Gobée, LUMC, Loes Hazes, VUMC|
|CONCLUSION GENERAL ANATOMY: There are a number of common commercial anatomy learning sites (such as KenHub, Acland, ADAM and Netter's), that have very nice materials and are comprehensive, but are all copyrighted, mostly only accessible with paid licenses and not reusable. Kenhub's articles are open accessible and referable by URL. Next there are a series of sites and YouTube channels dedicated to anatomy learning. They have open access and several are quite useful to refer to. However, they are copyrighted or use the standard YouTube license, hence are not open reusable. Searching YouTube or Vimeo for videos licensed with CC results in generally not very useful items, although there might be some individual good items. The exception is one good neuroanatomy site with open content we found: neuroanatomy.ca. In general, summarizing: open access: yes, open reusable: no.|
|SITE||Acland||http://aclandanatomy.com/||Dissection videos of whole body with explanation||W.o. sign in: Transcript of the videos and 1 cover-shot of each; Register/sign in: videos self. No meaningful URLs||Copyright||100E/jr||Not tested because no access, but appears very good, and is renowned. Only seems to cover a selection of structures though as apeears from the 3 structures random sample checks.||No||search box||4 videos on topic, and a number more in which mentioned||0||0||2-12-2017||Hester van der Sloot, Haagse Hogeschool|
|SITE||ACLS online library||https://pacificmedical||Mainly pages about cardiac diseases, with one page on anatomy of the heart. Target group: nurses|
|SITE||ADAM||http://www.adamedu||Suite of anatomy resources: ADAM Interactive anatomy: Dissectible anatomy: peel off body layer by layer in drawings; 3D: 8 3D rotating models; 15500 quiz questions. Students can receive quizzes with random 20 questions per region. Teachers can create quizzes. Encyclopedia: 3600 articles on diseases, procedures etc. Educational tools.||License /Sign in needed, Flash needed (for ADAM Interactive = dissectible). Unity3d web player needed (probably for the 3D models)||Copyright||70-140E/yr for students 280-464E/yr for instructors||Interactive Anatomy (peel off layer dissectible drawing) very useful to look up during dissection. 3D models: just 'nice'. Imagery reasonably attractive but slightly outdated. Quizzes and Encyclopedia: not tested.||No||Unknown/ Sign in needed||no access, couldn't test||no access, couldn't test||no access, couldn't test||2-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||ADAM Images||http://adamimages.co||Atlas with 30.000 img (drawings, dissection)||W.o. sign in: reasonably large preview of img. No meaningful URLs||Copyright.||eg. 1 drawing: 1 yr on web 326E, in 1 Powerpoint 50E||Good, imgs seem more clinical than anatomy (post tibial muscle not found)||No||search box||3 (1 reasonably good drawing, 1 good radiology, 1 good dissection)||0||0||2-12-2017,
|Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||Anatomedia||https://anatomedia.c||Videos on dissection, radiology, cross-section., sysems. Organized by region.||License /Sign in needed||Copyright||60E (student) -170E (other) /yr||Good. Dissection is the core. But closed.||No||Unknown/ Sign in needed||no access, couldn't test||no access, couldn't test||no access, couldn't test||3-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||Anatomie3D||http://anatomie3d.un||Videos. Also some in English and other languages. Uses Youtube channel 3D Anatomy Lyon.|
|SITE||Anatomy of the Brain Recommended (PG)||http://neuroanatomy.||Educational site on neuroanatomy by Claudia Krebs - University of British Columbia. Has an atlas of dissection images, MRI, 3D models videos, tutorials.||open access||CC BY NC SA 4.0 International||Free||Seems a very useful site for neuroanatomy.||Yes, useful!||Browse topics||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||AnatomyZone||http://anatomyzone.c||Anatomy learning site, by two UK doctors: mini courses on anatomy, apparently using the biodigitalhuman 3D model, Zygote 3D model, Open Stax and AnatomyLearning. Also see YouTube site.||open access||Copyright||Free||Good, but bit dull, useful to refer to||No||Browse topics, search box||1 on topic video, some more related videos||1 on topic video (that is: included invideo on leg muscles)||1 good img and text (apparently from Open Stax)||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy||http://www.vhlab.um||A library of short video clips showing the beating human heart, all the valve actions, the contractions of atria and ventricles, and the architecture of the heart as it beats.||open access||Copyright||Free||Post mortem hearts that are brought back to beating by perfusion. Beautiful videos giving a great view of the functioning of the heart.||No||Browse topics||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||6-2-2019||Friso Jansen, LUMC|
|SITE||Bartleby Gray's Anatomy Recommended (PG)||http://www.bartleby.||Bartleby hosts the renowned Grays Anatomy of the Human Body 1918 version.||open access||Public Domain, copyright expired||Free||An old edition of the classic anatomical 'gold reference work'. Even though it is old, a valuable resource with high quality anatomical information. The images are black and white line drawings||Yes||Browse topics, search box||10 articles||1 on topic article||1 article uses (different name of structure)||27-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||Imaios||https://www.imaios.c||Online atlas with descriptions and images. The descriptions are said to incorporate Gray's anatomy 1918 or Wikipedia. The labels on the images are mostly only subscription based. 'AnatomyTOOL but not open'.||Really useful content only subscription based. Texts (said to incorporate Gray's anatomy 1918 or Wikipedia) are open accessible, hence are accessible on their original places. A selection of ~1/3 of the images is shown small and with large watermark in it, the images on usable format only show the labels subscription based.||Copyright||Individual subscription 74,99Euro/year.
App based on in-app purchases 0,61 - 89,99 per item or subscription?
|Extensive and probably useful if you have the subscription, but not very useful for open usage. Texts are largely from Grays or Wikipedia,this can also be accessed there. Lots of images, but labels only accessible with subscription. Search function slow. Quite expensive subscription.||No||browse and search box. Search box slow (5-10 sec)||10 hits, not all relevant. Images only labels with subscription. No description yet.||0 hits||5 hits, Images only show labels with subscription. Description incorporates Gray.||8-1-2018||Fred van Immerseel, LUMC; Robbert Notenboom, LUMC|
|SITE||Kenhub||https://www.kenhub.||Anatomy learning site with images, quiz, tutorials. Macro, histology, radiology. Very extensive learning quizzes and tools. 'AnatomyTOOL but not open'. Also see YouTube site.||W.o. sign in: text tutorial pages partially. Atlas images in B/W. After free sign in: text tutorial pages. Atlas images. Videos: previews that ad for premium license. Paid license/sign in: quizzes and videos and term pronounciation. Pages have meaningful URLs.||Copyright.
"Unless stated otherwise, all content, including illustrations are exclusive property of Kenhub GmbH, and are protected by German and international copyright laws. All rights reserved. "
|133E/jr||Good. Visually attractive, easily navigable, good texts. Set-up seems didactically strong with div. quiz types. The videos that are open (see Yoube channel below) are visually attractive but not so exciting. Structures that are mentioned by the speaker are not all shown, so this might be confusing.||No||After sign in you can search by structure. Browse list of topics per region.||After sign in: 1 article, 3 partial drawings. All quite attractive||After sign in: 1 article, 4 reasonable images. All quite attractive||After sign in: 1 article, 2 good images. All quite attractive||2-12-2017,
|Hester van der Sloot, Haagse Hogeschool|
|SITE||Netter||https://www.netteri||The renowned atlas.||W.o. sign in: reasonably large preview completely covered with watermark.||Copyright.||eg. 1 drawing: 1 yr on web 282E, in 1 Powerpoint 99E||Standard work world wide for decades. But definitely not open!||No||search box||7 top images, 2 on topic, 5 partial trajectory or variations||3 good img||2 top imgs in book but the online search engine finds none, only searches upperl imb||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SITE||Open pediatrics||https://www.openpe||Includes a great number of educative games.||Note that usage license may be different outside the US.||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|SITE||TeachMeAnatomy||http://teachmeanatomy.info/||700 anatomical images, created as collaborative project of University of Leicester||open access||Copyright||Free||Good texts. Plain simple presentation, Gray coloured in images. Useful to refer to.||No||Browse topics, search box||present in 1 article, 1 img||present in 1 article, 1 img||0||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|BOOK||OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology (recommended PG)||https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology||Open textbook of Anatomy and Physiology||open access||CC BY||Free||Currently, the standard work in open anatomy. It doesn't go too deep, but it's a good basic text. The images are at a graphic-schematic to graphic-plastic level and with low saturated colours, but functional. The text provides a combination of physiology and anatomy. It provides more general concepts than going into all anatomical structures and details. It thus falls short for the complete medical education, but surely provides more than a good start. It suffices fine for vocational level health disciplines. The online version builds up the pages as if they are constructed on the fly. This being the only open text of this extent and complete coverage available, makes this both a standard work and a laudable effort.||Yes||index and search box, search function of pdf reader||yes, but it is very small on the image of the circulatory system.||no||yes||20 June 2019||?|
|YouTube & Vimeo|
|VID||3D Anatomy Lyon||https://www.youtube|
|VID||AnatomyTutorials||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel by Kristina Lisk, Toronto, ON with 36 videos on musculoskeletal anatomy, mostly made with a 3D model||open access||Std YouTube||Free||Good explanation, clear, nicely used 3D model. Useful videos||No||Browse topics, search box||0||2 in leg videos||0 (probably)||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||AnatomyZone YouTube channel||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel of AnatomyZone (see : with 183 videos by two UK doctors: mini courses on anatomy, using the biodigitalhuman 3D model or Zygote 3D model||open access||Std YouTube||Free||Good, but bit dull, useful to refer to||No||Browse topics, search box||1 on topic video, links to more videos||1 on topic video, links to more videos||0||3-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||Brigham Young University Anatomy Lab YouTube channel Recommended (PG)||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel by Brigham Young University Anatomy lab. Nearly 140 videos made by students each showing one anatomical topic, mostly in dissection||open access||Std YouTube (most)||Free||Professional video quality. Quite nice dissection quality. The nice thing is that most videos focus just on structure or topic. Also nice is that it is presented by students, so it is very recognizable for students.||No||Browse topics, search box||1 in arteries of the body video||1 in leg video||0||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||Human Anatomy Education||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel for anatomy education with > 500 videos. By Dr.Akram Abood Jaffar (Ph.D.), location: Canada? United Arab Emirates?||open access||Std YouTube||Free||Anatomically good/correct. Technically moderate: Dissection videos have very discolored bodies, not very nicely dissected, video moves around and is not always on the point the presenter wants to show. It seems like a recorded regular dissection room prosection demo, the teacher is good but the overall presentation, recording and material doesn't completely get to the standard of an optimal educational video. A video on muscles of the leg explained concepts nicely, but needs previous knowing of the muscle names. Nice is that he combines all kinds of non-anatomical things with it: e.g. pictures of bridges to show mechanics, (historical) backgrounds of names, etc. General impression: a good anatomist, but the poor cadaver material and unprofessional video recording quality unfortunately affects the educational quality. Selected videos might be useful.||No||Browse topics, search box||2 on topic dissection videos. a drawing video, a model video, an imaging video and a few videos on related topics||0 on topic||1 on topic||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||KenHub YouTube channel||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel with approx 250 mini-course videos||open access||Std YouTube||free||Might be useful to refer to some videos if by chance one on topic present here. Only a limited amount of structures are covered in these open videos. The videos are visually attractive but not so exciting. Structures that are mentioned by the speaker are not all shown, so this might be confusing.||No||search box||0 (1 video in which it is mentioned, but not clearly indicated, 2 off topic videos)||0 (9 off topic videos)||0 (4 off topic videos)||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||Leiden University MOOCs - Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis; a journey from basis to clinic||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel with 73 videos from MOOC with the same name.||open access||CC BY NC SA 3.0||free||External reviewer sought||Yes||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||Noted anatomist YouTube channelRecommended (PG)||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel with 95 videos by David Morton : mini courses on anatomy||open access||Std YouTube||Free||Good. American. Good didactic quality. Useful to refer to||No||Browse, search box||1 on topic video, links to more videos||1 on topic video, links to more videos||0 (1 incorrect link)||3-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||YouTube - search CC||https://www.youtube||Get cc videos by searching with addition ",creativecommons" (with comma!)||open access||CC BY||Free||There are many anatomical videos online, but quality differs.||Yes||search box||59 videos, most probably not very useful (Arab, cat, some operations..)||129 videos, mostly probably not great (all kind of physical exercise videos)||1 Arab video||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|VID||Vimeo - find CC||https://vimeo.com||Get cc videos by using filters||open access||CC (different types)||Free||The random tests give only a few specific clinical videos, no basic anatomy||Yes, but the random tests show no basic anatomy||search box||3 radiology||3 clinical videos||0||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|MO OC||Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis; a journey from basis to clinic||https://www.coursera||MOOC on Coursera by dept. Anatomy & Embryology Leiden University Medical Center. On the Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis.||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|MO OC||Exploring Anatomy: the Human Abdomen||https://www.futurele||MOOC on FutureLearn by James Pickering of University of Leeds, UK. On the anatomy of the abdomen.||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|CONCLUSION DISSECTION:the camera quality and the quality of the dissections and cadaver material unfortunately often falls short, decreasing the educational usefulness of many of the dissection videos. The Acland videos are proably of good quality, but behind a paywall. Open accessible, the Brigham Young students videos are quite well, and specifically for the topic of fascia's Gil Hedley's videos. These may be useful to refer to. All videos, except some very poor quality 70's videos (Open Academy) are copyrighted, hence not open reusable.|
|DISS||Acland||see GENERAL ANATOMY||Hester van der Sloot, Haagse Hogeschool|
|DISS||AnatomyGuy||http://www.anatomy||A whole series of dissection and other videos||open access||Copyrighted||Free||Camera quality poor, this importantly decreases the value.||No||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Basset collection||http://lane.stanford.e||1,547 (?) photos and drawings from a 1962 atlas||open access. requires Flash||CC BY NC SA||Free||Useful resource of dissection images. Bit brown old images, but usable. Search engine not very useful (returns brain images for SMA and leg muscle)||Yes, but quality moderate||Browse topics, search box||1280 (but ~10% on topic?)||867 (but ~10% on topic?)||931(but ~10% on topic?)||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|Bluelink, Univ. Michigan
|https://sites.google.c||Dissection photo's||open access||Copyrighted, Materials from these pages may be used for educational purposes with credit and notification to authors.||Free||A valuable collection of high quality dissection photo's.||No||Browse topics||yes||no, as far as I see||no, as far as I see||6-2-2019||Michael Hortsch, Univ. of Michigan|
|DISS||Brigham Young University Anatomy Lab YouTube channel||see GENERAL ANATOMY, Y||Copyrighted||No||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Gil Hedley Recommended (PG)||http://www.gilhedley||8 long dissection videos (hour) and 15 dissection images mainly focusing on fascia and layers||open access||Copyrighted||Free||Good quality dissections and cadaver material and video quality. Special attention to fascia's. One can see the love of the dissector for the human body. Sometimes the dissector presents some personal particular views though, that may not appeal to all. Probably not a medically licensed doctor.||No||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Human Anatomy Education||see GENERAL ANATOMY, Y||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Laboratories Anatomical Enlightment||http://www.lofae.co||16 long (1-2 hours) dissection videos||Only trailers open accesible||Copyrighted||2,99$/video||Trailers: good camera quality||No||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Lawrence G Altman dissections||http://www.lawrence||27 dissection videos. Flash based.||open access. requires Flash||??||Free||Moderate video quality, also because one cannot enlarge it.||?||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Univ Michigan Dissection videos||http://www.med.umi||Dissections videos apparently meant to support dissection practical, organised by the dissection process||Could not view due to codec/plugin||Copyrighted||Free||Can't watch||No||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Open Academy, Michigan||https://theopenacade||series of 47 dissection videos from the 1970s||open access||CC BY NC SA||Free||Camera quality poor, this importantly decreases the value.||Yes, but quality so limited that cannot be adviced||Browse topics||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|DISS||Univ. Wisconsin Gross Anatomy Dissection||https://videos.med.w||21 dissection videos||open access||???||Free||Presented nicely organised and open accessible, but the cadaver material, dissection quality and video technical quality are suboptimal, decreasing the educational value. Selected videos might be useful.||No? License unclear||Browse topics||y||y||didn't check whole video to see if it was mentioned||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|HIST||Poja Collection UMCG||http://www.poja-coll||A selection from the vast collection of slides of human histology and electron microscopy collected by Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, regarding 13 Organ Systems. The images are stills, not virtual slides. They are used in the teaching of Medical students, Dentistry students, Medical bioscience students and of the School for Laboratory Technicians. Part of the slides is also in the HEAL collection.||open access||Free||Annelieke Schepens-Franke, UMCG|
|HIST||Virtual slides Univ. Mchigan||http://virtualslides.m||A huge collection virtual slides.||open access, requires Flash||Free|
|HIST||Virtual Microscopy Database||http://virtualmicrosco||Platform for donating and exchanging digital microcopy files||Only access for educators and researchers, after acquiring permission||copyrighted?||Free||Large collection but unfortunately no open access||No||Yes, but no changes allowed||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||6-2-2019||Michael Hortsch, Univ. of Michigan|
|HIST||LeBlond Histology atlas, McGill||http://audilab.bme.mcgill.ca/HA/||LeBlond Histology atlas, McGill||open access||CC BY NC ND||Free||W. Robert J. Funnell, Prof. McGill univ, CA|
|3D||CONCLUSION 3D ADULT:there is a host of commercial platforms with all fancy 3D models, all claiming to be world wide the best, unique, etc. All are copyrighted, hence not reusable. ZygoteBody allows free access, but no showing/hiding of individual structures. Biodigital requires free sign in but allows showing/hiding of structures. AnatomyLearning allows creating imagery from its model but does not have a clear CC license, it requires placing its logo. The only 3D model under CC license is BodyParts. Ready to use models can be made from it. It has the whole anatomy annotated, but its quality is moderate due to its low poly count. Sketchfab has some specific good quality 3D models under CC license, esp. of Anna Sieben, Univ. of Groningen and Dundee.|
|3D||3D4Medical (IRL, USA) Complete anatomy -||https://3d4medical.com/||3D rotatable model with ciurses and AR. Installed application for W10, Mac or mobile||Does not work in browser.||Copyrighted.||?||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||AnatomyLearning.com||http://anatomylearni||3D models that you can use freely to create imagery with. Showing the logo is required. By Dr. Blanco Salado, Peset Hospital, Valencia. Also has quiz tools. Originally Spanish, translated to English.||open access, works in browser||Every content created with our software (i.e. images or videos) must have a clearly visible link to "www.AnatomyLearning.com" and AnatomyLearning's logo (see logo's collection), both full time the content is visible. In case of videos, a spoken mention at the end of the video is required too. II - Getting profit (directly or indirectly) from these contents is forbidden without permission. III - We reserve to ourselves the right to unilaterally request the retirement of the contents.This means, the permission of publication and distribution of contents created with our software can be revoked.||Free||Actually quite well looking. Bit simplified. Interface clean, but little imperfections: hovers showing function missing on buttons. Lower parts of screen can only be reached by scroll-button on mouse, not with mouse-buttons (there are no scroll bars). This causes that navigating sometimes has little hurdles. Useful but the license is not a CC license. The possibility to revoke usage of created imagery, even though probably only a legal safety is a bit worrying to invest much time. Some little translation (English) imperfections (e.g. YeYunum)||Yes/no, no CC license, logo required. Permission can be revoked.||Browse||13-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|3D||Anatronica (CHI)||https://anatomy-3d-a||Free 3D Web app on human skeletal and muscular anatomy. Seems from a single developer. Last update 2013. Site http://www.anatronica.com is down||Does not work in browser.||?||free||Did not test. Probably lower quality. Not updated||No?||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Audilab||NEW: http://audilab.bme.mcgill.ca/~funnell/davis3d/thrwpny.html||3D models of head, trunk and foot||open access||CC BY NC SA||free||The new 3D (webGL) interface is in which the models can be dragged is far better than the classic interface, in which the models can be stepwise rotated. The classic interface can hardly be recommended, this review regards the new interface. The models are somewhat course, little smoothed. There is no texturing. The heart model is unfinished. Clicking a structure provides its name. Structures can be hidden or restored via keyboard shortcuts.
Different from many 3D models that show everything, resulting in an overly complex view, or require endless hiding of structures in order to see the structures one wants to see, the authors of these models offer a number of preselections, which makes the models far better usable. Also some zoomed in models are offered, e.g. of the biliary system. Especially the skull, the circle of Willis, the thoracic vertebrae, the biliary system, the pelvis ligaments and pelvis arteries (also showing the piriformis and internal obturator muscles well) appeared useful to me. Despite the site's layout being very basic, the models relatively basic and not too sophisticated from an esthetic standpoint, their preselections, the easy interface requiring no specific software besides the browser, the names when clicked, and the open accessibility, make the indicated 3D models actually more didactically useful than many high-end 3D models.
|Yes||no, click structure for its name||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||20 June 2019||W. Robert J. Funnell, Prof. McGill univ, CA|
|3D||Biodigital||https://www.biodigit||3D rotatable model. You can hide or show systems or structures. Click on a structure to get its name. An explanation is provided with each structure. Possibilities to reuse in websites, apps (for cost probably). Source: Own graphic production||free sign in needed, works in browser||Copyrighted. Use of imagery for non-commercial, private educational use only||Free for individual use, unknown costs ('contact us') for use by teachers, use in web sites||The usual pro's and cons of 'all structures in the bod'y 3D applications: either you see too much or you see too little. And it is a lot of work to turn on and off structures to see something specific you need. Good for looking up individual structures. Not good for seeing relations between structures. E.g. I didn't succeed in creating an image that shows which structures are supplied by the SMA. Either the involved structures are shown (and hide the SMA) or they are hidden and you see the SMA -together with a lot of other blood vessels-, but you don't see where it goes to.||No||After sign in||y, but you don't see what it supplies||~ can be found under right tibialis posterior resp. left tibialis posterior, but you don't find it if you look for muscle||yes||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||BodyParts 3D||https://dbarchive.bios||3D model data that can be used to create applications||open access. Download 3D data and use in 3D editing software||CC BY SA||free||3D data loaded in 3D editing software: contains a lot, but also several structures missing, object collisions, shortcomings due to low poly: simplified structures, hooked surfaces, etc.||Yes, but no ready imagery. Needs processing.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||BodyParts3D/Anatomography||http://lifesciencedb.j||3D models of individual structure (parts) in BodyPart 3D model||open access. 3D individual structures: just see screenshots, 3D model anatomatography doesn't work with me||CC BY SA||free||just see screenshots, quality low||Yes, but not very useful: images low quality, partial structures||search box||y, but no content visible||y, but no content visible||y, but no content visible||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Cyber Anatomy 3D for zSpace (USA)||http://cyberscience3d||Virtual Reality Anatomy||No access without license.||Copyrighted.||?||Could not test. No access without license.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Digihuman (CHI)||http://digihuman.com/en/||Apparently a 3D rotatable model, dissections, radiology||I don't succeed in getting to content||?||?||Could not test||?, couldn't find the content||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Essential anatomy -3D4Medical||https://3d4medical.com/||3D rotatable model. Installed application for Mac or iPad. Source: Own graphic production||Does not work in browser.||Copyrighted.||?||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Netters 3D Interactive Anatomy (USA)||http://netter3danato||Apparently 3D based on Netter's images.||Could not get any to work. Legacy version: IE and Safari, needs Unity webplayer plugin. New beta version works in major browsers without plugin.||Copyrighted.||5$/mo||Could not test. Could not get it to work.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Neuromorpho.org||http://neuromorpho.||A centrally curated inventory of digitally reconstructed neurons associated with peer-reviewed publications. It contains contributions of over 400 laboratories worldwide and is continuously updated.||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||NIH 3D print exchange||https://3dprint.nih.gov/||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||Organon 3D anatomy atlas||http://www.3dorganon.com/||3D rotatable model. Installed application for W10, Mac or mobile. Source: Own graphic production||Does not work in browser. Only bone and skeleton free.||Copyrighted.||Student 25$ for app||Could not test. Does not work in browser. Does not work on < W10. Screenshots look fancy.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Pocket Anatomy (IRL, USA)||https://www.pocketa||3D rotatable model. Works on mobile and Mac||Does not work in browser.||Copyrighted.||?||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Primal Pictures Ltd. | Anatomy.TV (UK)||http://www.anatomy.||3D rotatable model. According to demo videos: find structures, browse in tree, click structures to see name. Source: Apparently the Visible Human female.||No access without license.||Copyrighted.||Student 95$/yr, Personal 725$/yr||No access without license. From previous trials: Complex interface. The usual pro's and cons of 'all structures in the bod'y 3D applications: either you see too much or you see too little.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||SketchFab, Anatomy||https://sketchfab.com||Platform for 3D models. Also contains anatomy.||open access, works in browser||Differs: CC and C||free||High quality 3D models by Anna Sieben and of Univ of Dundee. Other anatomy models sometimes are incorrect. Some models have CC||Yes/no: some yes and good||search box||3 models, not specific||1 on topic, good model, 5 off topic||0||14-12-2017||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, Anatomy next||https://sketchfab.com/a4s||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, Anna Sieben||https://sketchfab.com||Models by A Sieben: so far most tissues||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, Doctor Jana||https://sketchfab.com||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, Elearning UMCG||https://sketchfab.com||Models from Elearning UMCG group: so far most hearts and teeth||Most CC||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, University of Dundee, CAHID||https://sketchfab.com||Models by Univ of Dundee: so far most bones, ear. Eye||Copyrighted||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||SketchFab, Intervoke||https://sketchfab.com||Anna Sieben, UMCG|
|3D||TeamLabBody |3D Motion Human Anatomy||http://www.teamlabbody.com||3D model that can show movements. App for mobile only||Does not work in browser.||Copyrighted. "teamLabBody"is planning to open our data to utilize it for education and commercial purposes.||28,81||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No. Site states considering 'opening for education'||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||VH Dissector Pro||http://www.toltech.n||Cross-sectional viewer of Visible Human + dissections||Does not work in browser. License key and payment needed||Copyrighted.||Student 2yr access $119 Lifetime $299||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Visible body (USA)||https://www.visibleb||3D rotatable model, animations, lab activities, and quizzes. Installed application for W, Mac or mobile. Source: own graphic production||Does not work in browser.||Copyrighted.||25$||Could not test. Does not work in browser.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|3D||Zygote Body (USA)||https://www.zygotebody.com/||3D rotatable model. The former Google Body. You can hide or show more or less of systems with a drag slider. Free interface doesn't support show/hide of individual structures. Click a structure to get its name. Source: Living human scan, graphic||direct access, works in browser||Copyrighted. With Zygote Body and ZygoteBody Premium license only personal use. Only with Zygote Body Professional maing derivatives is allowe , you must discountinue there usage after stopping Professional account. derivates made by you are owned by Zygote.||Lite: free, Premium: 4$/mo, Professional: 98$/month||The usual pro's and cons of 'all structures in the bod'y 3D applications: either you see too much or you see too little. Free interface doesn't support show/hide of individual structures.||No||search box||y, but you don't see what it supplies||no||yes||10-12-2017||Michel Dieben, LUMC|
|CONCLUSION EMBRYOLOGY:The Virtual Human Embryo is a massive resource containing the original Carnegie slides segmented. But it is copyrighted. The Swiss embryology.ch is a complete learning resource on embryology, solid, but not fancy. Indiana university has some simple but quite good animation tutorials. The long-standing Simbryo can now also be found online, unclear whether this is legal. All of the prvious are good to refer to but are copyrighted, so don't allow reuse. The only good modern 3D embryology resource that we found, that has a CC license (albeit a ND one), is the Amsterdam 3D embryo atlas.|
|EMB RYO||3D embryo atlas Recommended (PG)||https://www.3dembr||14 3D model reconstructions of Carnegie embryo collection in all stages. Pdfs, and raw annotated slice data (segmentations) available for download under CC. Editable 3D models themselves not available.||open access||CC BY-NC-ND 4.0||free||Very useful 3D models. Visually attractive. A very useful resource.||Yes/no (CC ND)||Browse stages||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Embryology||https://www.youtube||YouTube channel with 22 embryology animations derived from Primal Pictures and Moore. Advertises Primalonline learning||open access||video: STd YouTube, imagery copyrighted||free||Good animations. Unclear if this is an ad for Primal Pictures or illegaly derived||No||Browse list of videos||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Embryology.ch Recommended (PG)||http://www.embryology.ch||Extensive, well organised, embryology learning site, with all the embryology systematically covered. Texts and schematic drawings. Quizzes. Developed by the universities of Fribourg, Lausanne and Bern||open access||Copyrighted.||free||Good site, well organised, good to refer to. Solid, but not glamorous, technically not modern (last update 2008, site mentions Netscape)||No||Browse TOC. No search box.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Embryology wiki UNSW||https://embryology.m||Extensive site with description of embryology: both content and historical||open access||Varies. different licenses||free||Extensive info. Imagery is old. Bit messy.||Depends on specific item||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||10-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||The Endowment for Human development||http://www.ehd.org/||Promises professional educational materials||sign in, only registered||Copyrighted.||free?||Could not test. No access without license.||No||No access||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Human Embryology Animations||http://www.indiana.e||Collection of animations with explanations to learn embryology. By Indiana University||open access||Copyrighted.||free||Good site with very useful animations, despite simple graphic schematic animations. Good to refer to!||No||Browse list of animations. No search box||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Khan Academy Embryogenesis||https://www.khanaca||Early embryogenesis lecture 'drawing and talking'.||open access||CC BY NC SA||free||Limited extent. An incorrect over-simplification (intestines derive from endoderm, skin from ectoderm,..)||Yes, but only introductory||Only a few videos||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|http://missinglink.ucs||The long used Simbryo set of 7 step-by-step animations of the embryology, Flash based. Was sold together with Langman atlas. Unclear whether this is a legal online posting.||open access||Copyrighted.||legal online?||The long used Simbryo set of 7 step-by-step animations of the embryology, Flash based. Unclear whether this is a legal online posting. It was the embryology animation resource for several years. Langman atlas doesn't seem to have it anymore. Other postings of Simbryo give an 'illegal site' message with a link to Stanford site http://simbryo.stanford.edu/ which is not available anymore.||No||Choose of the 7 subjects||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||Next generation embryology project||http://aberlour.hgu.m||States to be a Jisc based 'Google maps of Embryology'||sign in||?||?||Doesn't seem to work, only error messages.||n.a.||Doesn't seem to work, only error messages||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||The Virtual Human Embryo||http://virtualhumane||Apparently only overview/reference site to Virtual Human content below||open access||Copyrighted.||free||Apparently only overview/reference site to Virtual Human content below||No||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||The Virtual Human Embryo||http://www.prenatalo||14,250-page, illustrated atlas of human embryology, 11 year 3,2M$ project. Full digitisation of Carnegie collection. Extensive, comprehensive site with slices from the Carnegie collection, terminology, all ordered to Carnegie stage||open access||Copyrighted.||free||A standard work. A comprehensive look-up and research site. Not for primary education||No||Browse by stage. Search box||yes||no||no||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|EMB RYO||YouTube embryology CC||https://www.youtube||Youtube CC tagged Embryology videos||open access||CC BY||free||Apparently only a handful scientifical teaching embryology resources. Majority is about 'Embryology in the Quran'||Yes, but probably not very useful||Browse videos||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||12-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|CONCLUSION CLINICAL ANATOMY:There are very good surgical and medical sites to refer to or look up info. Reuse of these materials is not allowed though. Radiology though is ahead of the field with a number of good, open 'TOOL' like resource-sites, esp. Radiopaedia. These are definitely useful.|
|INTERNAL, GENERAL MEDICINE|
|INT MED||UpToDate||https://www.uptodat||Clinical decision support resource' site. An international standard.||Only with license||Copyrighted. You may print out, or email to a colleague, individual articles containing only insubstantial portions of the most current version of the Licensed Materials, but only for a) your personal clinical, educational or research use; b) teaching healthcare professionals; or c) consulting with individual colleagues, provided that any printed or emailed articles include a source reference to UpToDate and its copyright notice. You are not permitted to print or email substantial portions of the Licensed Materials, nor to email individual articles to large numbers of recipients.PROHIBITED USES: Except as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly prohibited. No part of the Licensed Materials may be copied for resale or other commercial use, or posted on public bulletin boards, web sites, Internet domains, or online chatrooms.||??||The worldwide standard site for clinical uptodate information.Not open.||No||search box||>50 (show more.)||>50 (show more.)||>50 (show more.)||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|RAD||Chest X ray database||https://nihcc.app.box.||112,120 frontal-view X-ray images of 30,805 unique patients with text-mined fourteen disease image labels||open to download||The usage of the data set is unrestricted. But you should provide the link to our original download site, acknowledge the NIH Clinical Center and provide a citation to our CVPR 2017 paper.||Free||Probably more useful for research than teaching, especially as easier radiology resources are available||Yes, but probably not very practical||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|RAD||Echocardiographer||echocardiographer.org||Site by two cardiologists, mainly about US of the heart. Contains moving US imagery.||open access, Flash required||Copyrighted. You may print out, or email to a colleague, individual articles containing only insubstantial portions of the most current version of the Licensed Materials, but only for a) your personal clinical, educational or research use; b) teaching healthcare professionals; or c) consulting with individual colleagues, provided that any printed or emailed articles include a source reference to UpToDate and its copyright notice. You are not permitted to print or email substantial portions of the Licensed Materials, nor to email individual articles to large numbers of recipients.PROHIBITED USES: Except as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly prohibited. No part of the Licensed Materials may be copied for resale or other commercial use, or posted on public bulletin boards, web sites, Internet domains, or online chatrooms.||Free||Useful resource to link to.||No||Browse topics||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|RAD||MedPix (The National Library of Medicine)||https://medpix.nlm.ni||A free open-access online database of medical images, teaching cases, and clinical topics, integrating images and textual metadata including over 12,000 patient case scenarios, 9,000 topics, and nearly 59,000 images.||open access||For anything other than personal use, you should respect the original contributor and contact them for additional permission requests.||Free||Maily case based. Neither searches on 'Kocher's maneuver', 'hemicolectomy', 'Pfannenstiel', nor searches on the three test structures revealed great images for anatomy larning. Especially a lot of radiology.||No||search box||a few dozen, mostly ct scans.||0 on topic||0||Anna Sieben, UMCG. Loes HazesVU|
|https://radiopaedia.org/||Free educational radiology resource with one of the web's largest collections of radiology cases and reference articles. 2,283 anatomy articles.||open access||CC BY NC SA 3.0||Free||Theopen radiology resource. 'TOOL for radiology'. Very useful source to refer to anatomy and to radiological imagery and cases.||Yes, one of the few good open resources||Browse topics, search box||163 items||68 items||7 items||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|RAD||Ultrasoundpaedia||http://www.ultrasoun||Online resource of anatomy, physiology and pathology pertaining to ultrasound||normal anatomy: open access; pathology: paid license||Terms: Individuals may copy, distribute, display, download and otherwise freely deal with the material on the condition that Ultrasoundpaedia Pty Limited is visibly credited of the source of that material. No commercial usage. No modification allowed.||Free||Useful resource to link to for normal anatomy US images with good explanation. Images may be copied non-commercially, but not modified.||Yes/No; modify: no. No CC license.||Browse topics, search box||1 item||1 on topic||0||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SURG||Chirurg en operatie||http://www.chirurgen||Marja Versantvoort, Fontys Hogeschool Mens en Gezondheid|
|SURG||Med-info Operatieprocedures||http://www.med-info||Site focussing on medical info for consultants, residents and medical students (Dutch). Surgical procedures. Protocols of surgical procedures. Descriptions of anatomy in surgical procedures: for this it refers to WebSurg (below)||open access||Copyrighted||Free||Useful site to look up and get background information. Images in the Anatomy section are all Netter's images (illegaly copied?)||No||search box||9||4||1||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SURG||Medscape||https://reference.me||Site with medical news and expert perspectives; drug and disease information; professional education and CME.||open access||Copyrighted||Free?||Huge list of anatomy topics. Useful to refer to.||No||search box||560 items||667 items||37 items||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SURG||SurgeryAssistant||http://www.surgeryas||(Dutch) site aimed at surgical residents, by surgical resident J. Sprakel, privately maintained.||open access||Copyrighted||Free||Site in development but already lots of surgical protocols, additional info, videos. Useful to refer to.||No||Browse topics||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|
|SURG||Websurg||https://www.websurg||Virtual surgical university': extensive website with training in surgery. Includes descriptions of operations and involved anatomy.||Free account needed||Copyrighted||Free?||A useful site to study surgical procedures. But very copyrighted.||No||search box||153 items found||0||0||14-12-2017||Paul Gobée, LUMC|